Common Terms to Know if you want to become a Hacker



hacking1#DDoS: DDoS  means Distributed Denial of Service. This is a type of DOS attack in which multiple compromised systems are used and these systems are often infected with a Trojan. All these infected systems select a target and cause a Denial of Service (DoS) attack.

2# VPS: It stands for Virtual private server (VPS) . It is a virtual machine that is sold as a service by an Internet hosting service. A VPS generally runs its own copy of an operating system, and the customers have superuser-level access to that operating system instance, so they can install almost any software that runs on that OS.

3# SE: Social engineering is an attack vector that relies heavily on human interaction and often involves tricking people into breaking normal security procedures.

4# HTTP: The Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) is an application protocol for  collaborative, distributed, hypermedia information systems. HTTP is the…

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Researchers Store Full Computer Operating System on DNA


Proving that everything old is new again, researchers are now storing data on the oldest information storage solution there is: DNA.

A pair of researchers at Columbia University and the New York Genome Center (NYGC) have come up with a technique to store massive amounts of data on DNA. The result, according to study coauthor Yaniv Erlich, is the “highest-density data-storage device ever created.”

The researchers say DNA is the perfect storage medium: it’s ultra-compact and can last hundreds of thousands of years if kept cool and dry, according to a news release from Columbia.

“DNA won’t degrade over time like cassette tapes and CDs, and it won’t become obsolete—if it does, we have bigger problems,” Erlich, a computer science professor at Columbia Engineering, said in a statement.

Erlich and his colleague Dina Zielinski, an associate scientist at NYGC, successfully encoded six files into DNA: a full computer operating system…

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Storing Data on DNA, Now a reality


For Nick Goldman, the idea of encoding data in DNA started out as a joke.

It was Wednesday 16 February 2011, and Goldman was at a hotel in Hamburg, Germany, talking with some of his fellow bioinformaticists about how they could afford to store the reams of genome sequences and other data the world was throwing at them. He remembers the scientists getting so frustrated by the expense and limitations of conventional computing technology that they started kidding about sci-fi alternatives. “We thought, ‘What’s to stop us using DNA to store information?’”

Then the laughter stopped. “It was a lightbulb moment,” says Goldman, a group leader at the European Bioinformatics Institute (EBI) in Hinxton, UK. True, DNA storage would be pathetically slow compared with the microsecond timescales for reading or writing bits in a silicon memory chip. It would take hours to encode data by synthesizing DNA strings with a…

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One gram of DNA

Intelligent Design

Just think about it for a moment: One gram of DNA can store 700 terabytes of data. That’s 14,000 50-gigabyte Blu-ray discs… in a droplet of DNA that would fit on the tip of your pinky. To store the same kind of data on hard drives — the densest storage medium in use today — you’d need 233 3TB drives, weighing a total of 151 kilos.  Today, we wouldn’t dream of blanketing every square meter of Earth with cameras, and recording every moment for all eternity/human posterity — we simply don’t have the storage capacity. There is a reason that backed up data is usually only kept for a few weeks or months — it just isn’t feasible to have warehouses full of hard drives, which could fail at any time. If the entirety of human knowledge — every book, uttered word, and funny cat video — can be…

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Storage Solutions

The Future Filter

Storage is an all encompassing issue. From physical to digital and back again, the market needs ways to retain information in bits. And bytes of course too, there is great computational potential in quartz to microcrystals to DNA to magnetized molecular clouds to quantum computing with entangled states. This is but a small subset of all the plans hashed out at major corporations!





Applied Optics

“High-density optical data storage with one-photon and two-photon near-field fluorescence microscopy”




“Harvard cracks DNA storage, crams 700 terabytes of data into a single gram”


Magnetized molecules.

Molecular magnet hard drive

“Physicists at Trinity have made a major breakthrough with molecular magnets that could bring us one step closer to quantum computers.”


Quantum computers.

The D-Wave Two’s cryogenic cooling system. There’s a qubit chip in ...

“Quantum computer finally proves its faster than a conventional PC…

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The genetic computer


We live in a highly computerized society (the concept of the Internet of Things) where not only are there a lot of electronic devices abound, you probably have a computer on your person right now. Think of how many people in the world have a smartphone (surprisingly, I don’t – I’m just cheap). According to Experts Exchange, the guidance systems used in the Apollo missions have only twice the computing capability of the old Nintendo Entertainment System (or Famicom for you video game hipsters out there). That’s right – with half of the RAM that NASA used to guide Apollo 11 to the moon, I’ve been using it to save the Kingdom of Hyrule.

O0KRHUO Source: Experts Exchange,

My old Sega Genesis (CPU Speed: 7.6 MHz, RAM: 72 KB) would have blown away the Apollo guidance systems. No contest.

All this computerization requires a lot of resources, especially silicon…

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A Peek into Singapore’s Wildlife

Conservation for the Wild

Whenever I meet someone during my travels abroad or back here in Australia, I am often questioned about my origins. The moment they hear Singapore their usual first response is, “Oh Singapore! I have been there for a day. Great shopping and it was so clean and beautiful.” Many people think of Singapore as a massive modern concrete jungle with no trace of wildlife. In fact, I too had that opinion for such a long time.

In recent years, that opinion has crumbled to dust. There is a reason for this. When you live and breathe for the conservation of your natural environment and wildlife, you don’t quite see the world the same way anymore. As an individual, I have become highly observant and animals rarely escape my view. During my last few visits to Singapore, I suddenly started seeing all these incredible birds, reptiles and mammals which I never…

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Sip of life

I am a big wildlife lover.. there is something about the dense and thick forest, the rustling of woods, the call of birds, that feels so enigmatically attractive. I have recently started travelling to wildlife sanctuaries and have managed to see some animals /birds in their natural habitat. It is fascinating to see them roaming around ,undisturbed and unperturbed. Here are few of my chanced encounters which i truly cherish , however lack of a good camera, might be one reason , that the real charisma of the moment will not be that evident from the photos. Nevertheless , it definitely will give you some flavor of my Jungle book diaries….


THE MAJESTIC… a Female Lioness along with her Cubs @ Gir , Janugadh , Gujarat


THE CROOKED ONE ..we saw this fox near a village , while our way back from Gir





These are the Migratory…

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