Cloud storage


Cloud storage

Cloud storage is a model of networked online storage where data is stored in virtualized pools of storage which are generally hosted by third parties. Hosting companies operate large data centers, and people who require their data to be hosted buy or lease storage capacity from them. The data center operators, in the background, virtualize the resources according to the requirements of the customer and expose them as storage pools, which the customers can themselves use to store files or data objects. Physically, the resource may span across multiple servers.

Cloud storage services may be accessed through a web service application programming interface (API), or through a Web-based user interface.

Contents

Cloud storage architecture

Cloud storage has the same characteristics as cloud computing in terms of agilityscalability, elasticity and multi-tenancy. It is believed to have been invented by Joseph Carl Robnett Licklider in the 1960s.[1] Since the sixties, cloud computing has developed along a number of lines, with Web 2.0 being the most recent evolution. However, since the internet only started to offer significant bandwidth in the nineties, cloud computing for the masses has been something of a late developer.

One of the first milestones for cloud computing was the arrival of Salesforce.com in 1999, which pioneered the concept of delivering enterprise applications via a simple website. The services firm paved the way for both specialist and mainstream software firms to deliver applications over the internet. FilesAnywhere also helped pioneer cloud based storage services that also enable users to securely share files online. Both of these companies continue to offer those services today.

It is difficult to pin down a canonical definition of cloud storage architecture, but object storage is reasonably analogous. Cloud storage services like Amazon S3, cloud storage products like EMC Atmos, and distributed storage research projects like OceanStore[2] are all examples of object storage and infer the following guidelines.

Cloud storage is:[2]

  • made up of many distributed resources, but still acts as one
  • highly fault tolerant through redundancy and distribution of data
  • highly durable through the creation of versioned copies
  • typically eventually consistent with regard to data replicas

Cloud storage advantages

  • Companies need only pay for the storage they actually use as it is also possible for companies by utilizing actual virtual storage features like thin provisioning.[3]
  • Companies do not need to install physical storage devices in their own datacenter or offices, but the fact that storage has to be placed anywhere stays the same (maybe localization costs are lower in offshore locations).[3]
  • Storage maintenance tasks, such as backup, data replication, and purchasing additional storage devices are offloaded to the responsibility of a service provider, allowing organizations to focus on their core business, but the fact stays the same that someone has to pay for the administrative effort for these tasks [3]
  • Cloud storage provides users with immediate access to a broad range of resources and applications hosted in the infrastructure of another organization via a web service interface.[4]

Potential concerns

  • Security of stored data and data in transit may be a concern when storing sensitive data at a cloud storage provider [3]
  • Performance may be lower than local storage depending on how much a customer is willing to spend for WAN bandwidth [3]
  • Reliability and availability depends on wide area network availability and on the level of precautions taken by the service provider.[citation needed]
  • Users with specific records-keeping requirements, such as public agencies that must retain electronic records according to statute, may encounter complications with using cloud computing and storage.[citation needed]

Examples of cloud storage

See also

References

  1. ^ ComputerWeekly Article: A History of Cloud Computing[1]
  2. a b Sean Rhea, Chris Wells, Patrick Eaton, Dennis Geels, Ben Zhao, Hakim Weatherspoon, and John Kubiatowicz, Maintenance-Free Global Data Storage. IEEE Internet Computing , Vol 5, No 5, September/October 2001, pp 40–49. [2]

    [3]

  3. a b c d e ZDNet, Nasuni Cloud Storage Gateway By Dan Kusnetzky, June 1, 2010, [4]
  4. ^ O’Brien, J. A. & Marakas, G. M. (2011). Computer Software. Management Information Systems 10th ed. 145. McGraw-Hill/Irwin
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Google Storage

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from Google Cloud Storage)
Google Cloud Storage
URL developers.google.com/storage/

Type of site File hosting service
Registration Required
Availablelanguage(s) English
Owner Google
Launched May 19, 2010
Current status Active

Google Cloud Storage is a RESTful online storage web service for storing and accessing your data on Google‘s infrastructure. The service combines the performance and scalability of Google’s cloud with advanced security and sharing capabilities. It is an Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS), comparable to Amazon S3online storage service.

Contents

Feasibility

User activation is resourced through the API Developer Console. Google Account holders must first access the service by logging in and then agreeing to the Terms of Service, followed by enabling a billing structure. As of May 21, 2011, the console is part of Google Labs, and is free up until a generous usage quota.

Design

Google Storage (GS) stores objects (originally limited to 100 GiB, currently up to 1 TiB) that are organized into buckets (as S3 does) identified within each bucket by a unique, user-assigned key. All requests are authorized using an access control list associated with each bucket and object. Bucket names and keys are chosen so that objects are addressable using HTTP URLs:

Features

  • Interoperability – Google Storage is interoperable with other cloud storage tools and libraries that work with services such as Amazon S3 and Eucalyptus Systems.[dubious – discuss]
  • Consistency – Upload operations to Google Storage are atomic, providing strong read-after-write consistency for all upload operations.
  • Access Control – Google Storage uses access control list (ACLs) to manage object and bucket access. An ACL consists of one or more entries, each granting a specific permission to a scope. Permissions define what someone can do with an object or bucket (for example, READ or WRITE). Scopes define who the permission applies to. For example, a specific user or a group of users (such as Google account email addresses, Google Apps domain, public access, etc.)
  • Resumable Uploads – Google Storage provides a resumable data transfer feature that allows to resume upload operations after a communication failure has interrupted the flow of data.

References

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Ubuntu One

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from Ubuntuone)
Ubuntu One
Ubuntu One Logo
Developer(s) Canonical Ltd.
Initial release May 2009
Development status Active
Written in Python[1]
Operating system Ubuntu 9.04 and higher, Android 2.1 or newer, iOS 3.1 or newer or Windows XP or newer
Available in English
Type Cloud Service
License Server-side: Proprietary[2]
Client-side: GPLv3[3]
Website one.ubuntu.com

Ubuntu One is a personal cloud service operated by Canonical Ltd.

The service enables users to store files online and sync them between computers and mobile devices, as well as stream audio and music from cloud to mobile devices.

Contents

Features

Ubuntu One has a client application that runs on Ubuntu 9.04 and later or Windows XP or newer. There is an Ubuntu One music app for iOS devices, but not currently one for OSX computers. [4] A free Ubuntu One account offers 5 GB of storage. Users may increase their storage by adding additional 20 GB “20-packs” for $2.99 per month or $29.99 per year.

“Ubuntu One Music Streaming” offers music-streaming apps for iPhone and Android phones. The “Music Streaming” package costs $3.99 a month or $39.99 per year.

The Ubuntu One service is similar to services such as SpiderOakDropboxBox.netMozyWualaAmazon Cloud PlayerGoogle MusicHumyoiDiskJungle Diskand Live Mesh. Its client code is written in Python. It uses Twisted for its low-level networking and Protocol Buffers for protocol description. Data is synced over a custom protocol called “u1storage”, and stored on Amazon S3.[5]

Additional features like the integration with other services sets Ubuntu One apart from the other similar service-providers. Examples include the automatic upload of photos taken from Android mobile devices for immediate sync across computers; integration with Mozilla Thunderbird for contacts and with Tomboy for notes due to the access to the local CouchDB instance.[6] Further possibilities include the capability of editing the contacts, as well as the Tomboy notes, online via the Ubuntu One Web interface; synching contacts with mobile devices; and purchasing DRM-free music while synchronizing them automatically with an Ubuntu One Account via the Ubuntu One Music Store (in partnership with 7digital).

Application Developer Program

Ubuntu One publishes APIs for developers wishing to build applications utilizing file and data synchronization or music streaming.

Reception

The Ubuntu One App has a 4.5 star (out of 5) rating on the iTunes App Store[7], a 4.5 star (out of 5) rating on the Chrome Web Store[8], and 4.5 star (out of 5) rating on the Android Market[9].

Ubuntu One has been criticized within the Ubuntu Community for its server software being proprietary[10][11].

There is not yet a native client integration for the Kubuntu variant of the Ubuntu operating system (as of January 2012).[12] Kubuntu integration is under development and has also received a grant from the Google Summer of Code 2010.

Further criticism concerns the unclear revenue share that will be granted to the community.[citation needed] The Amarok development team has announced that they will not add support for the Ubuntu One Music Store to the Amarok media player for the moment[13], unlike what they have done with Magnatune media store, which funds the project with 10% of the revenue produced via the interface to the store built in Amarok.[14]

See also

References

  1. ^ “What is Ubuntu One”

    . 13 May 2009.

  2. ^ “Ubuntu One Servers in Launchpad”

    . Retrieved 2010-10-22. “Other/Proprietary”

  3. ^ “One license notice example”

    . Retrieved 2010-10-22. “under the terms of the GNU General Public License version 3, as published by the Free Software Foundation.”

  4. ^ “Ubuntu One: Downloads”

    . Retrieved 2011-10-01.

  5. ^ “Ubuntu One Technical Details”

    . Ubuntu.com. Retrieved 17 February 2012.

  6. ^ “Relaxed Ubuntu 9.10: CouchDB to be Integrated – Linux Magazine Online”

    . Linux-magazine.com. 2009-10-15. Retrieved 2010-01-26.

  7. ^ “App Store – Ubuntu One Files”

    . Retrieved 18 February 2012.

  8. ^ “Chrome Web Store – Ubuntu One”

    . Retrieved 18 February 2012.

  9. ^ “Ubuntu One Files – Apps on Android Market”

    . Retrieved 18 February 2012.

  10. ^ Bug #375272 in Ubuntu One Servers: «Server software is closed source» — Launchpad
  11. ^ Bradley M. Kuhn (2010-01-14). “Back Home, with Debian!”

    . Retrieved 2010-10-22. “UbuntuOne’s server side system is proprietary software with no prospects of liberation.”

  12. ^ “Launchpad bug #375145 – Ubuntu One should have a KDE client”

    . Retrieved 2012-01-08.

  13. ^ Kretschmann, Mark. “Ubuntu One Music Store integration • KDE Community Forums”

    . Retrieved 16 April 2010.

  14. ^ “buckman’s magnatune blog: Giving money to open source”

    . Retrieved 2011-12-3.

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Azure Services Platform

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Windows Azure
Part of the Windows family
Windows Azure logo.png
Windows Azure
Developer
Microsoft
Website Official website

Releases
Release date 1 February 2010; 2 years ago[1][citation needed]
Source model Closed source

Microsoft Windows Azure Platform[2] is a Microsoft cloud computing platform used to build, host and scale web applications through Microsoft data centers. Azure is classified as platform as a service and forms part of Microsoft’s cloud computing strategy, along with its software as a service offering, Microsoft Online Services. The platform consists of various on-demand services hosted in Microsoft data centers and commoditized through three product brands. These are Windows Azure[3](an operating system providing scalable compute and storage facilities), SQL Azure (a cloud-based, scale-out version of SQL Server) and Windows Azure AppFabric(a collection of services supporting applications both in the cloud and on premise). Microsoft has announced free Ingress[clarification needed] for all the customers of Azure from 1 July 2011.

Microsoft has also published plans to offer the Windows Azure Platform Appliance, which can be hosted in non-Microsoft data centers. This will enable resellers, such as HPDellFujitsu and eBay, to offer cloud services based on the Microsoft Azure Platform.[4]

Contents

Overview

The Windows Azure Platform is an application platform in the cloud that allows Microsoft datacenters to host and run applications. It provides a cloud operating system called Windows Azure that serves as aruntime for the applications and provides a set of services that allows development, management, and hosting of applications off-premises.[5] All Azure Services and applications built using them run on top of Windows Azure.

Windows Azure has three core components: ComputeStorage, and Fabric. As the names suggest, Compute provides a computation environment with Web RoleWorker Role, and VM Role while Storage focuses on providing scalable storage (Blobs, non-relational Tables, and Queues) for large-scale needs. Relational Database functionality is offered through SQL Azure, which is a scalable version of SQL Server that runs on the Azure platform.

The Windows Azure fabric is the networking underpinnings of the Windows Azure platform which uses high-speed connections, and switches to connect nodes consisting of several servers together. The Fabric along with the Compute and Storage resources make up the Windows Azure Platform.

Fabric resources, applications, and services running are managed by the Windows Azure Fabric Controller service. It acts as the kernel of the Windows Azure distributed cloud operating system, providing scheduling, resource allocation, device management, and fault tolerance for the nodes in the Fabric. It also provides high-level application models for intelligently managing the complete application lifecycle, including deployment, health monitoring, upgrades, and de-activation.

The Windows Azure Platform provides an API built on RESTHTTP, and XML that allows a developer to interact with the services provided by Windows Azure. Microsoft also provides a client-side managed class library which encapsulates the functions of interacting with the services. It also integrates with Microsoft Visual Studio so that it can be used as the IDE to develop and publish Azure-hosted applications.

Windows Azure became commercially available on 1 Feb 2010.[citation needed]

Windows Azure also offers Content Delivery (CDN) services as an option. The Azure CDN enables worldwide low-latency delivery of static content from Azure Storage to end-users from 24 data centers worldwide.[6][7]

Windows Azure ranked first among all cloud-platform providers in Cloud speed test conducted by application performance management vendor Compuware[8]

Services

  • Windows Azure Compute
    • Web Role
    • Worker Role
    • VM Role
  • Windows Azure Storage
    • Table
    • Queue
    • Blob
  • SQL Azure
    • SQL Azure Data Sync
    • SQL Azure Reporting
  • Content Delivery Network
  • Azure AppFabric
    • Access Control
    • Caching
    • Service Bus
  • Azure Market Place
  • Azure Virtual Network
    • Azure Connect
    • Azure Traffic Manager

Implementation

The Windows Azure platform uses a specialized operating system, called Windows Azure, to run its “fabric layer” — a cluster hosted at Microsoft’s datacenters that manages computing and storage resources of the computers and provisions the resources (or a subset of them) to applications running on top of Windows Azure. Windows Azure has been described as a “cloud layer” on top of a number of Windows Serversystems, which use Windows Server 2008 and a customized version of Hyper-V,[9] known as the Windows Azure Hypervisor[10] to provide virtualization of services.[11]

The platform includes five services — Live ServicesSQL Azure (formerly SQL Services), AppFabric (formerly .NET Services), SharePoint Services, and Dynamics CRM Services[12] — which the developers can use to build the applications that will run in the cloud. A client library, in managed code, and associated tools are also provided for developing cloud applications in Visual Studio. Scaling and reliability are controlled by the Windows Azure Fabric Controller so the services and environment do not crash if one of the servers crashes within the Microsoft datacenter and provides the management of the user’s web application like memory resources and load balancing.

The Azure Services Platform can currently run .NET Framework applications compiled for the CLR, while supporting the ASP.NET application framework and associated deployment methods to deploy the applications onto the cloud platform. It can also support PHP websites. Two SDKs have been made available for interoperability with the Azure Services Platform: The Java SDK for AppFabric and the Ruby SDK for AppFabric. These enable Java and Ruby developers to integrate with AppFabric Internet services.

Access to Windows Azure libraries for .NETJava, and Node.js is now available under Apache 2 open source license and hosted on GitHub. A new Windows Azure SDK for Node.js makes Windows Azure a first-class environment for Node applications, and a limited preview of an Apache Hadoop-based service for Windows Azure enables Hadoop apps to be deployed in hours instead of days.

History

October 2008 (PDC LA)

  • Announced the Windows Azure Platform
  • First CTP of Windows Azure

March 2009

  • Announced SQL Azure Relational Database

November 2009

  • Updated Windows Azure CTP
  • Enabled full trust, PHP, Java, CDN CTP and more
  • Announced VM Role, Project Sidney, Pricing and SLAs
  • Project “Dallas” CTP

February 2010

  • Windows Azure Platform commercially available

June 2010

  • Windows Azure Update
    • .NET Framework 4
    • OS Versioning
    • CDN
  • SQL Azure Update (Service Update 3[13])
    • 50GB databases
    • Spatial data support
    • DAC support

October 2010 (PDC)

  • Platform Enhancements
    • Windows Azure Virtual Machine Role
    • Role enhancements
    • Admin mode, Startup tasks
    • Full-IIS support
    • Extra Small Instances
  • Windows Azure Connect
    • Access to on-premise resource for cross-premise apps
    • Support for Domain-joining VMs
    • Direct role-instance connectivity for easier development
    • Use your existing remote administration tools
  • Improved Dev / IT Pro Experience
    • New Windows Azure Platform Management Portal
    • Multiple users & roles for management
    • Remote Desktop
    • Enhanced Dev Tools
    • PHP Development
    • Marketplace

AZURE Platform

Datacenters

Some datacenters have servers grouped inside containers – each containing 1800-2500 servers. [14] [15]

The location of the data centers [16] are:

  • North America
    • North-central US – Chicago, IL
    • South-central US – San Antonio, TX
  • Asia
    • East Asia – Hong Kong, China
    • South East Asia – Singapore
  • Europe
    • West Europe – Amsterdam, Netherlands
    • North Europe – Dublin, Ireland

The CDN nodes are located in 24 countries.[17][18][19]

In Ireland

As of July 2010, Microsoft had completed 6,000 installations of Azure in Ireland.[20] Executives at Microsoft hoped that this figure would rise to 100,000 installations by 2011.[20] Examples of companies using Azure in Ireland are Aer Lingus and HR Locker. “Aer Lingus is using Azure to create an interactive web application that integrates route maps with their reservation and booking process”.[21] HR Locker, a Web 2.0 provider of HR solutions to small- to medium-size companies, was built on the Azure platform. HR Locker chose to use Azure in order to improve scalability, backup, security and the various other issues associated with hosting.[22]

The $500 million facility[23] is one of the largest construction projects in Ireland over last 12 months and has generated approximately 1 million man-hours of work with a peak workforce of around 2,100 workers. The data center will also provide approximately 35-50 jobs in the Dublin area. The facility, which began operating on July 1, 2009, currently covers 303,000 square feet (2.815 hectares), with 5.4 mega watts of critical power available to deliver services to consumers and business customers. Over time, the data center can expand to a total of 22.2 mega watts of critical power to support future growth.

SQL Azure

The Windows Azure platform offers the optional SQL Azure database as a supplement to the data storage provided by the Storage AppFabric[24] [25]. SQL Azure is built on top of Microsoft SQL Servertechnologies[26] and as a result of that, it offers all the standard relational database features that one would expect to find in a Microsoft SQL Server database instance, such as tables, indexes, views, triggers, stored procedures, referential integrity, and transactions[27].

Competitors

References

  1. ^ “Windows Azure Platform Launch schedule”

    Microsoft. Retrieved 15 January 2011.

  2. ^ “Windows Azure Platform”

    Microsoft. Retrieved 15 January 2011.

  3. ^ “Windows Azure”

    Microsoft. Retrieved 15 January 2011.

  4. ^ “Windows Azure Platform Appliance”

    Microsoft. Retrieved 15 January 2011.

  5. ^ “Windows Azure FAQ”

    Microsoft. Retrieved 16 April 2009.

  6. ^ “Windows Azure CDN Announcement”

    Microsoft.

  7. ^ “UPDATED: 24 Nodes Available Globally for the Windows Azure CDN Including New Node in Doha, QT”

    Microsoft.

  8. ^ http://arstechnica.com/business/news/2011/10/windows-azure-faster-than-amazon-ec2-and-google-app-engine-in-yearlong-cloud-speed-test.ars
  9. ^ Keith Ward. “More Azure Hypervisor Details”

    . Virtualization Review. Retrieved 16 April 2009.

  10. ^ Alessandro Perilli. “Windows Azure uses a hypervisor but it’s not Hyper-V”

    . Virtualization Info. Retrieved 16 April 2009.

  11. ^ Cesar de la Torre (2 November 2008). “Microsoft Azure Services Platform”

    . Microsoft. Retrieved 18 November 2008.

  12. ^ Microsoft Azure Services Platform
  13. ^ http://blogs.msdn.com/b/sqlazure/archive/2010/06/25/10030461.aspx
  14. ^ http://www.neowin.net/news/main/09/11/02/inside-windows-azures-data-center-one-of-worlds-largest
  15. ^ http://www.datacenterknowledge.com/archives/2010/03/23/video-building-microsofts-itpac-container/
  16. ^ http://joranmarkx.wordpress.com/2012/01/16/microsoft-azure-data-center-locations-worl-wide
  17. ^ http://blogs.msdn.com/b/windowsazure/archive/2010/08/09/20-nodes-available-globally-for-the-windows-azure-cdn.aspx
  18. ^ http://blogs.msdn.com/b/windowsazure/archive/2010/09/02/two-new-nodes-for-the-windows-azure-cdn-enhance-service-across-asia.aspx
  19. ^ http://blogs.msdn.com/b/windowsazure/archive/2010/08/09/20-nodes-available-globally-for-the-windows-azure-cdn.aspx
  20. a b Sunday Business Post
  21. ^ Silicon: Microsoft Azure
  22. ^ Microsoft Ireland
  23. ^ “Microsoft’s new Dublin Data Centre to support demand for online services for business and consumers.”

    .

  24. ^ “An Introduction to Windows Azure platform AppFabric for Developers”

    Microsoft. Retrieved 8 April 2010.

  25. ^ “Storage – Features – Windows Azure”

    . Microsoft. Retrieved 24 February 2012.

  26. ^ “SQL Azure – Features – Windows Azure”

    . Microsoft. Retrieved 24 February 2012.

  27. ^ “Windows Azure: Using Windows Azure’s Service Bus to Solve Data Security Issues”

    . Rebus Technologies. Retrieved 15 July 2010.

Windows Azure Cloud Computing Platform: Technology Partner selection Guide

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Amazon S3

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Amazon Simple Storage Service
AWS Simple Icons Storage Amazon S3 Bucket with Objects.svg
An S3 Bucket with Objects
URL aws.amazon.com/s3/

Type of site File hosting service
Registration Required
Availablelanguage(s) English
Owner Amazon.com
Launched March 14, 2006
Current status Active

Amazon S3 (Simple Storage Service) is an online storage web service offered by Amazon Web Services. Amazon S3 provides storage through web servicesinterfaces (RESTSOAP, and BitTorrent).[1] Amazon launched S3, its first publicly-available web service, in the United States in March 2006[2] and in Europe in November 2007.[3]

At its inception, Amazon charged end users US$0.15 per gigabyte-month, with additional charges for bandwidth used in sending and receiving data, and a per-request (get or put) charge.[4] As of November 1, 2008, pricing moved to tiers where end users storing more than 50 terabytes receive discounted pricing.[5] Amazon claims that S3 uses the same scalable storage infrastructure that Amazon.com uses to run its own global e-commerce network.[6]

Amazon S3 is reported to store more than 762 billion objects as of December 2011[7]. This is up from 102 billion objects as of March 2010,[8] 64 billion objects in August 2009,[9] 52 billion in March 2009,[10] 29 billion in October 2008,[5] 14 billion in January 2008, and 10 billion in October 2007.[11] S3 uses include web hosting, image hosting, and storage for backup systems. S3 comes with a 99.9% monthly uptime guarantee[12] which equates to approximately 43 minutes of downtime per month.[13]

Contents

Design

Details of S3’s design are not made public by Amazon. According to Amazon, S3’s design aims to provide scalabilityhigh availability, and low latency at commodity costs.

S3 is designed to provide 99.999999999% durability and 99.99% availability of objects over a given year.[14]

S3 stores arbitrary objects (computer files) up to 5 terabytes in size, each accompanied by up to 2 kilobytes of metadata. Objects are organized into buckets (each owned by an Amazon Web Services or AWS account), and identified within each bucket by a unique, user-assigned key. Amazon Machine Images (AMIs) which are modified in the Elastic Compute Cloud (EC2) can be exported to S3 as bundles.[15]

Buckets and objects can be created, listed, and retrieved using either a REST-style HTTP interface or a SOAP interface. Additionally, objects can be downloaded using the HTTP GET interface and the BitTorrentprotocol.

Requests are authorized using an access control list associated with each bucket and object.

Bucket names and keys are chosen so that objects are addressable using HTTP URLs:

  • http://s3.amazonaws.com/bucket/key
  • http://bucket.s3.amazonaws.com/key
  • http://bucket/key (where bucket is a DNS CNAME record pointing to bucket.s3.amazonaws.com)

Because objects are accessible by unmodified HTTP clients, S3 can be used to replace significant existing (static) web hosting infrastructure.[16] The Amazon AWS Authentication mechanism allows the bucket owner to create an authenticated URL with time-bounded validity. That is, someone can construct a URL that can be handed off to a third-party for access for a period such as the next 30 minutes, or the next 24 hours.

Every item in a bucket can also be served up as a BitTorrent feed. The S3 store can act as a seed host for a torrent and any BitTorrent client can retrieve the file. This drastically reduces the bandwidth costs for the download of popular objects. While the use of BitTorrent does reduce bandwidth, AWS does not provide native bandwidth limiting and as such users have no access to automated cost control. This can lead to users on the ‘free-tier’ S3 or small hobby users to amass dramatic bills. AWS representatives have previously stated that such a feature was on the design table from 2006-2010[17] but have recently stated the feature is no longer in development.[18]

A bucket can be configured to save HTTP log information to a sibling bucket; this can be used in later data mining operations. This feature is currently still in beta.

Hosting entire websites

As of February 18, 2011, Amazon S3 provides options to host static websites with Index document support and error document support.[19] This support was added as a result of user requests dating at least to 2006.[20] For example, suppose that Amazon S3 was configured with CNAME records to host http://subdomain.example.com/. In the past, a visitor to this URL would find only an XML-formatted list of objects instead of a general landing page (e.g., index.html) to accommodate casual visitors. Now, however, websites hosted on S3 may designate a default page to display, and another page to display in the event of a partially invalid URL. However, the current domain registration infrastructure only allows a subdomain to be hosted this way, not a second level domain. That is, subdomain.example.com can be hosted, but not example.com. One may use an A record pointing to the S3 server, but this method is not documented by Amazon.

Notable uses

Photo hosting service SmugMug has used S3 since April 2006. They experienced a number of initial outages and slowdowns,[21] but after one year they described it as being “considerably more reliable than our own internal storage” and claimed to have saved almost $1 million in storage costs.[22]

There is a User Mode File System (FUSE) for Unix-like operating systems (Linux, etc.) that lets EC2-hosted Xen images mount an S3 bucket as a file system. Note that as the semantics of the S3 file system are not that of a Posix file system, the file system may not behave entirely as expected.[citation needed]

Apache Hadoop file systems can be hosted on S3, as its requirements of a file system are met by S3. As a result, Hadoop can be used to run MapReduce algorithms on EC2 servers, reading data and writing results back to S3.

Dropbox[23]Zmanda and Ubuntu One are some of the many online backup and synchronization services that use S3 as their storage and transfer facility.

Minecraft hosts game updates and player skins on the S3 servers.[24]

TumblrFormspring and Posterous images are hosted on the S3 servers.

Notes

  1. ^ http://aws.amazon.com/s3/
  2. ^ “Amazon Web Services Launches “Amazon S3″”

    (Press release). Amazon.com. 2006-03-14.

  3. ^ Dorsey, John (2007-11-06). “Amazon S3 Storage Now Available in Europe”

    Dr. Dobb’s Portal. Retrieved 2008-03-26.

  4. ^ “Amazon Simple Storage Service pricing”

    Amazon.com. 2009-02-05.

  5. a b “Amazon S3 – Busier Than Ever”

    Amazon.com. 2008-10-08.

  6. ^ The same data storage infrastructure that Amazon uses to run its own global network of web sites
  7. ^ Amazon S3 Growth for 2011 – Now 762 Billion Objects
  8. ^ Brian Lillie of Equinix said that Amazon now is hosting 102 billion objects in S3
  9. ^ S3 (Amazon’s Simple Storage Service) alone has over 64 billion objects in it.
  10. ^ Just a year ago, there were 18 billion objects in S3. As of today there are 52 billion
  11. ^ Vogels, Werner (2008-03-19). “Happy Birthday, Amazon S3!”

    All Things Distributed.

  12. ^ Amazon S3 SLA
  13. ^ 60 min/hour * 24 hours in a day * 30 days * 0.1% = 43.2
  14. ^ Amazon S3 Protecting Your Data
  15. ^ Starting Websphere in Cloud and saving the data in S3
  16. ^ How to use Amazon S3 for Web Hosting
  17. ^ https://forums.aws.amazon.com/thread.jspa?threadID=10532&start=0&tstart=0
  18. ^ https://forums.aws.amazon.com/thread.jspa?threadID=58127&tstart=75
  19. ^ http://docs.amazonwebservices.com/AmazonS3/latest/dev/index.html?WebsiteHosting.html
  20. ^ Garnaat, Mitch, (19 Nov 2009). “Re: default key or ‘default document’ – is it possible to specify in S3?”

    . Retrieved 21 Sep 2010.

  21. ^ “Amazon S3 Outages, Slowdowns, and Problems”

    SmugBlog. SmugMug. January 30, 2007.

  22. ^ “Amazon S3: Show Me the Money”

    SmugMug Blog. SmugMug. November 10, 2006.

  23. ^ “Where are my files stored?”

    . November 28, 2010.

  24. ^ “Minecraft Beta 1.2_02”

    . January 21, 2010.

References

External links

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  • Annual revenue increase US$48 billion (2011)
  • Employees 56,200 (2012)
  • Stock symbol NASDAQAMZN
  • Website Amazon.com
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EMC Atmos

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

EMC Atmos is a cloud storage services platform developed by EMC Corporation. Atmos can be deployed as either a hardware appliance[1] or as software in a virtual environment.[2] The Atmos technology is designed to manage petabytes of information and billions of objects across multiple geographic locations as a single system. [3][4]

Atmos can be used as data storage for custom or packaged applications using either a REST or SOAP data API, or more traditional storage interfaces like NFS and CIFS. It presents a single unified namespace or object-space, stores information as objects (files + metadata), and manages information by user or administrator-defined policies.[5]

History

Atmos was organically developed by EMC Corporation and was made generally available in November 2008.[6] A second major release in February 2010 added a “GeoProtect” distributed data protection feature, faster processors and denser hard drives.[7]

During EMC World in May 2011, EMC announced the 2.0 version of Atmos with better performance, more efficient “GeoParity” data protection and expanded access with Windows client software (Atmos GeoDrive) and an Atmos SDK with Centera/XAM and Apple iOS compatibility.[8]

References

  1. ^ Atmos hardware specification sheet: http://www.emc.com/collateral/software/specification-sheet/h5853-atmos-stor-hrdw-ss.pdf
  2. ^ Atmos Virtual Edition data sheet: http://www.emc.com/collateral/software/data-sheet/h7295-atmos-virt-ed-ds.pdf
  3. ^ Brodkin, Jon. EMC unveils Atmos cloud offering

    Infoworld

  4. ^ Lawson, Stephen. EMC’s Atmos cloud storage gains more efficient data protection

    InfoWorld

  5. ^ Brodkin, Jon. EMC unveils Atmos cloud offering

    Infoworld

  6. ^ EMC Corporation News Release: http://www.emc.com/about/news/press/2008/20081110-01.htm
  7. ^ Mellor, Chris. EMC adds awesome to Atmos

    The Register

  8. ^ Mosher, Barb. EMC Announces Cloud Storage Updates, Hadoop based BI Software#emcworld

    CMS Wire

External links

3 thoughts on “Cloud storage

  1. Pingback: Cloud Database | CLOUD COMPUTING

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